Thursday, April 23, 2009

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): Basic Principle

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a primer mediated enzymatic amplification of specifically cloned or genomic DNA sequences. PCR process was invented by Kary Mullis and it has been automated for routine use in laboratories worldwide. The main purpose of the PCR process is to amplify template DNA using thermostable DNA polymerase enzyme which catalyzes the buffered reaction in which an excess of an oligonucleotide primer pair and four deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are used to make millions of copies of the target sequence.

Monday, April 13, 2009

The Measurement of Tryptophan Content by Using UV-Spectrometer

The absorption of protein solutions in the UV is the result of tryptophan and tyrosine (and to a very minor, and negligible, extent phenylalanine and cysteine). The absorption maximum will depend on the pH of the solution, and spectrophotometric measurements are usually made in alkaline solutions. Absorption curves for tryptophan and tyrosine show that at the points of intersection, 257 and 294 nm, the extinction values are proportional to the total tryptophan + tyrosine content. Measurements are normally made at 294.4 nm, since this is close to the maximum in the tyrosine curve, and in conjunction with the extinction at 280 nm, the concentrations of each of the two amino acids may be calculated. This is the method of Goodwin and Morton.

Saturday, April 11, 2009

Bicinchoninic Acid (BCA) Method: A Protein Assay

The Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay first was described by Smith, et al. BCA assay is similar to Lowry assay since it also depends on the conversion of Cu(2+) to Cu(+) under alkaline conditions. The Cu(+) is then detected by reaction with BCA. The reaction results in the development of an intense purple color with an absorbance maximum at 562 nm. BCA method and Lowry are of similar sensitivity, but BCA method is more advantageous compared to Lowry in a few things, here are the advantages: